Cysts are creations – cavities filled with fluid. They can occur at any age, individually or not, in one or both ovaries. They don’t normally grow, by cell proliferation, but they occur by accumulation of fluid from the tissues. One of the most common causes of cyst formation is the failure of follicle rupture at ovulation (follicular cyst). Thusly caused cysts are called functional cysts, because this process is part of ovulation. In addition, there are functional and non-functional ovarian cysts, as benign neoplastic cysts, chocolate cysts (endometriosis) and inclusion cysts.
Follicular cyst is a physiological cyst resulting from the absence of cracking follicles at the time of ovulation. It can grow 6-7 cm and sometimes causes pain or pressure in the lower abdomen. It tends to retrieve all by itself and rarely require surgical intervention.
The luteal cyst is a functional cyst with corpus luteum that occurs only after the release of the egg from the follicle during ovulation. If during ovulation and cracking follicles, it comes to stronger bleeding into the cavity of the follicle, that results into a functional cyst called haemorrhagic cyst. On the ovaries, benign dysfunctional cysts appear due to reproduction of ovarian cells, in the processes that are not associated with ovulation.
Small cysts usually do not cause any problems and difficulties. Sometimes you can feel one-sided abdominal pain, or uncomfortable pressure. Other cysts, can cause sharp pain like a knife stab, when at the time of rupturing, the content of the cyst pours into the inside of the stomach. Similar sudden and severe pain may occur when large cysts twist around their stems (torsion cysts). In addition to pain, there may be irregular or heavy bleeding. Most functional cysts can be observed during a gynecological examination, followed by detailed ultrasound evaluation findings.
In most cases, the growth of cysts is first controlled palpably and with an ultrasound, as they usually spontaneously retrieve (rupture). Hormonal preparations, as well as the pill can stop the growth and appearance of cysts. However, further tests are recommended in the following cases:
– If the cysts are larger than 4 cm in diameter and are present for several months;
– If growing fast;
– If there is no appropriate response to medication therapy;
– If it creates significant difficulties to women
– When the ultrasound looks suspicious.
Your doctor may recommend the following more detailed examination:
– Determination of brain tumor in the blood (CA125, HE4, CA19-9, CEA, AFP, ß-hCG);
– Overview of the size of blood flow through the cyst (Doppler ultrasound) and overview of the cyst interior (3D ultrasound).
Surgical removal of the cyst (laparoscopy) will be considered in extreme cases, when after the treatment and the given results, a definite diagnosis is made.